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一文搞懂云计算

2023-02-06 13:17:44 1601

摘要:Gartner"s 新兴技术成熟周期从效能计算理念谈起蓬勃发展的云计算计算是一种模型云计算:多种云模型(1)云计算的概念(2)云计算的优势(3)云计算产生的原动力(4)云计算带来的变革云计算的概念--定义云计算 (Cloud Computi...

Gartner"s 新兴技术成熟周期

从效能计算理念谈起

蓬勃发展的云计算

计算是一种模型

云计算:多种云模型

(1)云计算的概念

(2)云计算的优势

(3)云计算产生的原动力

(4)云计算带来的变革

云计算的概念--定义

云计算 (Cloud Computing)是基于互联网的相关服务的增加、使用和交付模式,通常涉及通过互联网来提供动态易扩展且经常是虚拟化的资源。云是网络、互联网的一种比喻说法。过去在图中往往用云来表示电信网,后来也用来表示互联网底层基础设施的抽象。因此,云计算甚至可以让你体验每秒10万亿次的运算能力,拥有这么强大的计算能力可以模拟核爆炸、预测气候变化和市场发展趋势。用户通过电脑、笔记本、手机等方式接入数据中心,按自己的需求进行运算。

注意这几个词:Compter,Compute,Computing,Computational

云计算的概念--特征

1.云计算为用户提供了最可靠、安全的数据存储中心,因此用户不必担心数据丢失以及病毒入侵等等麻烦。

2.云计算对用户端的设备要求最低,使用起来也最方便。

3.云计算可以轻松实现不同设备间的数据与应用共享。

4.云计算为我们使用网络提供了几乎无限多的可能

云计算的概念--分类(服务类型)

  • 基础设施云

  • 平台云

  • 应用云

云计算的概念--分类(服务方式)

共有云:为外部提供服务,外部的企业。不受企业管理。

私有云:企业内部、关注有效的利用企业内部的资源

混合云:企业不仅用到共有云,而且使用私有云,这种方式更注重的是共有云与私有云的连接,沟通。

云计算的概念--相关概念辨析›

  • 并行计算

  • 网格计算

  • 效用计算

  • 物联网

云计算的优势

  • 优化产业布局

  • 推荐专业分工

  • 提升资源利用率

  • 减少初级投资

  • 降低运营成本

  • 产生新创价值

云计算产生的原动力

  • 芯片和硬件技术

  • 资源虚拟化

  • 面向服务构架

  • 软件即服务

  • 互联网技术

  • WBE2.0技术

资源虚拟化

虚拟化技术可以将物理资源等底层架构进行抽象,使得设备的差异和兼容性对上层应用透明,从而允许云对底层千差万别的资源进行统一管理。

面向服务构架

  • 面向服务架构(Service Oriented Architecture,SOA)是一种IT架构设计模式,通过这种设计,用户的业务可以被直接转换成为能够通过网络访问的一组相互连接的服务模块。

  • 将业务直接映射到模块化的信息服务,并且最大程度地重用IT资产,尤其是软件资产。

  • 用户可以快速创建适合自己的商业应用,并通过流程管理技术来加速业务的处理,促进业务的创新。

  • 可以为用户屏蔽掉运行平台及数据来源上的差异

软件即服务

  • 软件即服务(Software as a Service,SaaS)是一种通过互联网提供软件的服务模式,用户不用再一次性购买软件,而改向服务提供商租用软件,且无须对软件进行维护,服务提供商会全权管理和维护软件。

  • 核心理念是将软件直接提供为服务,从而改变目前常见的软件销售并安装在客户自己的计算机上的这种消费及使用模型。

  • 对于中小型企业来说,SaaS消除了购买、安装和维护基础设施、中间件和应用程序的投资环节。从技术方面来看,企业无须再配备专业技术人员进行管理,同时又能得到最新的技术应用

云计算带来的变革

  • 大势所趋的转型

  • 新兴的产业链

7类常见的云计算应用场景


事实证明,云计算可以降低成本、提高灵活性和弹性,以及优化资源利用,从而提高竞争力。下文介绍了云计算用于提高实现业务目标的能力的几种情况。

基础结构即服务(IaaS)和平台即服务(PaaS)

就IaaS而言,如果公司想要节省购买、管理和维护IT基础结构方面的投资成本,那么根据按次计费方案使用现有的基础结构似乎是显而易见的选择。出于同样的原因,也有一些组织会选择使用PaaS,同时还会设法在随时可用的平台上提高开发速度,从而部署应用程序。

私有云和混合云

在鼓励使用云的众多措施中,有这样两种情况,即组织想要通过使用云(特别是公共云)寻找对准备部署到其环境中的某些应用程序进行评估的方法。在测试和开发可能受时间限制的情况下,采用混合云方法允许测试应用程序工作负载,因此可在无需初期投资的条件下提供舒适的环境,这样就不会在工作负载测试失败时显得无用。

混合云的另一种用途也是在有限的使用高峰期间的扩展能力,通常非常适合托管可能很少使用的大型基础结构。在即用即付的前提下,组织可能会在需要时寻求掌握环境的其他能力和可用性。

测试和开发

云的最佳使用场景可能是测试和开发环境。这需要保证预算,设置环境中的实物资产、重要的人力和时间。然后,还要进行平台的安装和配置。所有这些工作通常会延长项目的完成时间,延长里程碑。

借助于云计算,您现在可以方便地选择根据您的需求量身设置的即时可用环境。这通常会结合(但不限于)自动配置物理资源和虚拟资源。

大数据和分析

云计算可以实现的优势之一,就是可以使用大量结构化和非结构化数据,利用获取业务价值的优势。

零售商和供应商现在可以提取来自消费者购买模式的信息,进而将他们的广告和市场竟销活动定位到特定的群体。社交网络平台现在能够为与组织用来获取有用信息的行为模式有关的分析提供基础。

文件存储

使用云,您可以存储文件,并且通过任意支持Web的接口访问、存储和检索文件。WebService接口通常比较简单。您可以随时随地获得高可用性、高速、高可扩展性和高安全性的环境。在这个场景中,组织只需要为他们实际使用的存储量付费,而且在此过程中,无需监督存储基础结构的日常维护。

此外,还可以将数据存储在内部部署或外部部署上,具体取决于法规合规性要求。根据客户规范要求,可以将数据存储在由第三方托管的虚拟存储池中。

灾难恢复

这是根据灾难恢复(DR)解决方案的成本效益使用云产生的另一个好处:以更低的成本更快地从众多不同的物理位置中恢复,相比之下,传统的DR站点拥有固定资产、严格的程序,并且成本较高。

备份

备份数据一直是一项复杂且耗时的操作。这包括维护一系列磁带或驱动器,手动收集这些磁带或驱动器并将它们分派到备份设备中,而且原始站点和备份站点之间可能会发生所有固有问题。这种确保备份执行的方法无法避免用尽备份介质等问题,而且加载备份设备执行恢复操作也需要时间,还容易出现设备故障和人为错误。

基于云的备份虽然不是灵丹妙药,但肯定比以往的备份方式要好得多。现在,您可以自动将数据分派到网络上的任何位置,同时可以确保不会存在安全性、可用性或容量问题。

虽然上述云计算的用法介绍得不是特别详尽,但通过与传统替代方法的比较,确实会激励我们使用云,它能够提高IT基础结构的灵活性,同时能利用大数据分析和移动计算。

英文扩展

Cloud computing is all the hype right now but what does it really mean do you have to be sitting on a mountain with a computer among the clouds or on a plane with a laptop does it work when it"s sunny can you actually type on a cloud computing keyboard cloud computing is pretty big and it"s growing bigger every day there are basically three layers to cloud computing companies use them differently based on what they offer at the bottom is the foundation the infrastructure this is where things start and where people begin to build this is the layer where cloud hosting lives So let" s talk about hosting in the cloud which is an older concept that due to technology advances is finally starting to work really well let"s say you are a company and you have a website and the website has a lot of short conversations that are exchanged between members you start with a few users talking to each other and they start telling their friends about your site and they tell their friends and the friends tell their friends and so on you are successful but with success can come problems your equipment just can"t keep up with the demand your service slows down and suddenly you are in trouble a few years ago you would have put your website on a computer or server somewhere and when your success kicked in you had to run around and buy or rent new servers set them up or have someone set them up for you hundreds of thousands of companies do this now it costs a lot of money and it takes lots of time this is called hosting it takes time to set them up and they cost quite a bit of money to keep running all the time you pay for these servers when you are using them andyou pay for them when you are not using them you really just want to build your service and improve your product but instead of success your customers are getting angry and your successful business is shrinking away now you have a better option cloud computing with cloud computing you have access to computing power instantly when you need it put your website on a cloud server just like you would put it on a dedicated server and when people start visiting your site if you suddenly need more computing

power dedicated to your website you can scale up as much as you need almost instantly you get your computing power as you need it from the cloud on-demand and your customers stay happy without noticing any difference and if your traffic dips backdown you can release your servers back into the cloud just as easily this is a major advantage so I"ll say it again when you need more computing power you can get it instantly from the cloud and when you"re done with it you release it back to the cloud billing is easy too it works the same way you pay for gas or electricity when you turn on a light the meter starts running and youare billed for the electrical power that you take from the power grid and when you"re done with the light you turn itoff and the meter

stops running or you can think of it like getting a taxi the meter runs when

you ride it runs much slower when you stop and whenyou"re done with your ride you get out andyou pay your fare why you buy the wholetaxi when you can just pay for the tripbut wait how do you actually work withthe cloud you can"t physically touch your Hardware easy using your own personal computer you remotely accessyour cloud server and control it you canput whatever you need on it website orsoftware or code whatever and then just disconnect it when you are doneyou never actually touch it physically the key with cloud computing is notto focus on the hardware you just focus on your website or your softwareor code or whatever it is you"re doingthink of it like you

would any cloudservice do you really care where on what physical server your

email is hostedisn"t it vastly more important how the service works and that

it"s reliable and stable and easy to use here are threereasons why cloud hosting is becoming so popular one scalability it"s easy to grow or shrink to match your demand if you need one - or ten servers with cloud hosting you can easily grow or shrink the number based on what you need right now - cloud hosting is instant the computing power is there when you need it you just turn it on whatever you need is instantly available in the cloud and when your need goes down you can simply turn them off three save money you only pay for what you use and not for having equipment sit around just in case you might need it with cloud hosting you can stop worrying about your hardware you can work on building your business instead using cloud hosting will save you time and money and it"s there for you to use instantly so dump those old servers and head to the clouds this has been cloud computing by Timand Michael at go grid

【Task】每人写下10个重要的名词


【问答】

百度云是云计算的一种么?

是的,是云计算公有云的其中的一种,属于公有云存储的一种。

【扩展阅读】

  • What is the cloud? 什么是云

  • How can you use the cloud?如何使用云

  • Types of clouds 云的分类

  • Choosing a cloud provider 找寻云提供商

  • Security 安全性问题

  • Conclusions 结论

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